On a December 17, but from 1936, 85 years ago, Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born in Buenos Aires, Pope Francis.
Other ephemeris of December 17:
1790.- The “Stone of the Sun”, the Aztec Calendar, one of the most valuable pieces of the Mesoamerican pre-Columbian era, is discovered in Mexico City.
1819.- The Congress of Angostura decrees the union of Venezuela and New Granada in the Republic of Gran Colombia and grants Bolívar the title of “Liberator”.
1903.- American inventor and aviator Orville Wright makes the first powered flight in history at Kitty Hawk Beach (Ohio).
1916.- The Russian mystic Rasputin, state adviser to Tsarina Alejandra Romanov, is assassinated in Saint Petersburg (December 30, according to the Gregorian calendar).
1935.- The Douglas DC-3 plane, which revolutionized passenger air transport, makes its first flight.
1941.- During World War II, Nazi Germany, in the operation to control the naval base of Sevastopol (Crimea), initiates an attack against the Russian port, supported by 150 tanks and 300 planes, but is countered by the Soviet topas .
1961.- The Great North American Circus burns down in the Brazilian city of Niterói and causes 500 deaths in the greatest tragedy in circus history.
1976.- The Russian writer Vladimir Bukovsky, one of the first Soviet dissidents sentenced to confinement in psychiatric hospitals for political reasons, is released and repatriated to the United Kingdom.
1989.- The first episode of the popular American animated series “The Simpsons” is broadcast.
1992.- Mexico, Canada and the United States ratify the North American Free Trade Agreement.
1996.- Fourteen members of the Peruvian terrorist organization Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement occupy the residence of the Japanese ambassador in Lima and hold 72 guests for 126 days.
1997.- The American writer Jorn Barger coined the term “weblog”, later limited to the web, to define the pages that are published on the Internet.
2002.- Cuban dissident Oswaldo José Payá, the main promoter of the so-called Varela Project, receives the Sakharov Prize for Human Rights from the European Parliament.
2008.- The Argentine Senate ratifies the law that expropriates Aerolineas Argentina from the Spanish tourist group Marsans.
2009.- Sahrawi activist Aminatu Haidar ends a 32-day hunger strike at Lanzarote airport (Spain), after being expelled from El Aaiún by Morocco.
2010.- The National Assembly of Venezuela grants special powers to President Hugo Chávez to govern by decree for 18 months.
– The immolation of the street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi, for the confiscation of his fruit stand, unleashes a popular revolt that will lead to the departure from Tunisia of President Ben Ali and the beginning of the so-called Arab Spring.
2011.- Typhoon Washi hits the southern Philippines, causing floods and landslides that cause more than 1,500 deaths and tens of thousands of displaced people.
– North Korean dictator Kim Jong-il, who held power for 17 years, dies at the age of 69 of a possible heart attack.
2014.- US President Barack Obama announces the beginning of a process to resume economic and diplomatic relations with Cuba, after 50 years of hostilities.
2015.- Representatives of the two rival Libyan parliaments sign in Skhirat (Morocco), under the auspices of the UN, a peace agreement to form a government of national unity.
2019.- Pope Francis eliminates papal secrecy in cases of pedophilia and establishes the duty to cooperate with justice when there are executive mandates.
December 17 Births:
1770.- Ludwig von Beethoven, German composer and pianist (date of baptism, exact date of birth unknown).
1936.- Tommy Steele, British actor and singer.
1939.- Eddie Kendricks, American singer and songwriter, founding member of The Temptations.
1949.- Paul Rodgers, British singer, founding member of Free and Bad Company.
1975.- Milla Jovovich, Ukrainian model and actress.
1987.- Chelsea Manning, US intelligence analyst accused of leaking WikiLeaks.
Dec. 17 Deaths:
1830.- Simón Bolivar, Venezuelan military and politician.
1881.- Lewis Henry Morgan, American, founder of anthropology as a science.
1907.- William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, British physicist.
1909.- Leopold II, King of Belgium.
1927.- Hubert Harrison, American social activist.
1935.- Juan Vicente Gómez Chacón, Venezuelan politician and military man.
1947.- Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted, Danish chemist and physicist.
1957.- Dorothy Leigh Sayers, British writer and translator.
1962.- Thomas Mitchell, American actor and screenwriter.
1964.- Victor Franz Hess, Austrian scientist, Nobel Prize winner in Physics.
1978.- Don Ellis, American trumpeter, composer and conductor.
1987.- Marguerite Yourcenar, French writer.
2009.- Jennifer Jones, American actress.
2010.- Don Van Vliet, “Captain Beefheart”, American musician.
2011.- Cesária Evora, Cape Verdean singer.
2018.- Penny Marshall, American actress and director.
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December 17 anniversary: what happened on a day like today?