The Swedish Academy awards the 1982 Nobel Prize for Literature to Colombian writer and journalist Gabriel García Márquez for the originality, influence and cultural impact of his work. He is the author of the novel “One Hundred Years of Solitude”, translated into several languages and of which millions of copies have been sold all over the world.
On October 21, but in 1833, Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and founder of the prizes that bear his name, was born in Stockholm.
1805.- Battle of Trafalgar, won by the English squadron to the one formed by Spanish and French. Nelson, Churruca and Alcalá Galiano die, among other personalities.
1820.- Decree of General San Martín establishing the flag and coat of arms of Peru.
1860.- A national convention proclaims a new Constitution of the Argentine Republic, based on that of 1853.
1865.- General Ramón Menéndez, a Mexican in the service of Emperor Maximilian, has the Republican generals José María Arteaga and Carlos Salazar shot in Urnapán.
1861.- Naples and the Two Sicilies are incorporated into Italy by plebiscite.
1879.- Thomas Alva Edison invents the electric lamp.
1917.- Dizzy Gillespie, American jazz trumpeter, is born.
1919.- Daniel Bayona Posada, Colombian writer, dies.
1920.- Celia Cruz, American singer of Cuban origin, is born.
1931.- Hugh Thomas, British historian and writer, is born.
1932.- Chafki Bey, Egyptian poet and writer, dies.
1937.- Roberto Ortiz is elected president of the Argentine Republic.
1941.- Humberto Calderón Berti, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Venezuela, is born.
1949.- Jacques Copeau, French playwright, dies.
1953.- Peter Benjamin Mandelson, British politician, is born.
1956.- The president of Honduras, Julio Lozano Díaz, is overthrown by a military coup.
1959.- Ken Watanabe, Japanese actor, is born.
1969.- Jack Kerouac, American writer, dies.
1976.- The Chinese Communist Party accuses the “gang of four” of attempting a coup.
1982.- Colombian writer Gabriel García Márquez is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1984.- Francois Truffaut, French filmmaker, dies.
1989.- A Boeing 727-200, from the Honduran company Tan-Sasha, crashes in a mountainous area south of Tegucigalpa and 132 of the 146 passengers die.
1993.- Military coup in Burundi, whose president, Melchior Ndadaye, the first democratically elected, is assassinated.
1994.- British Prime Minister, John Major, announces in Belfast the acceptance of the IRA ceasefire.
– An arbitration court rules in favor of Argentina in its conflict with Chile over 534 kilometers of border.
2003.- The United Nations condemns in a resolution the construction of the wall that Israel erects on Palestinian land in the West Bank.
– Luis A. Ferré, former governor of Puerto Rico, dies.
2004.- Forty-four dead, 36 missing and nearly 300 injured as typhoon “Tokage” passed through western and southern Japan.
2008.- The UN Security Council urges that the armed groups operating in the eastern regions of the Congo declare a ceasefire to avoid escalation to a regional conflict.
– The new Constitution of Ecuador, approved in the referendum on September 28, 2008, enters into force and the Magna Carta of 1998 is repealed.
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Ephemeris October 21; 1982 Gabriel García Márquez receives the Nobel Prize for Literature — Informative Ágora