Ephemeris of June 30

On June 30, but in 1905, Albert Einstein publishes the article “On the Electrodynamics of Bodies in Motion” in the magazine “Annalen der Physik”, in which he exposes for the first time his Special Theory of Relativity.


1520.- Hernán Cortés suffers a great defeat at the hands of the Aztecs when he leaves the city of Tenochtitlán at night, known as “The Sad Night”.

1732.- A Spanish armed expedition, commanded by the Count of Montemar, conquers the Plaza de Oran from the Turks, which was in the power of Spain until 1792.

1859.- The French tightrope walker Charles Blondin crosses Niagara Falls for the first time on a tightrope about 335 meters long and before the eyes of 25,000 spectators.

1862.- The last chapters of “Les Miserables” by Victor Hugo are published.

1871.- In Guatemala, a liberal revolution led by Miguel García Granados and Justo Rufino Barrios overthrows the government of President Vicente Cerna. The former becomes provisional president for two years.

1887.- The Emperor of Brazil Pedro II, sick, embarks for Europe and the third period of regency of Princess Isabel begins.

1900.- Great fire at the Hoboken docks, in New Jersey -in front of New York-, causing 326 deaths and serious material damage.

1908.- The passage of a meteor destroys about 2,000 square kilometers of forest in central Siberia, an event known as the “Tunguska event”, which released an energy of about 185 times the Hiroshima bomb. The UN chooses that date as International Asteroid Day.

1934.- Adolf Hitler liquidates the extremist faction of his party, the SA, whose leader, Ernst Rohm, and his main collaborators are executed in the “Night of the Long Knives”.

1936.- The American writer Margaret Mitchell publishes “Gone with the Wind”.

1950.- Korean War: US President Harry Truman orders the dispatch of ground forces to prevent the creation of a communist state after the invasion of the south by forces from the north.

1951.- Delegates from 34 nations, meeting in Frankfurt (FRG), begin the Congress in which the creation of the new Socialist International (SI) is formalized.

1960.- Independence of the Belgian Congo, later renamed as Zaire (1971) and as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1997).

1966.- The National Organization for Women, the largest feminist group in that country, is founded in the US.

1969.- The Argentine union leader Augusto Timoteo Vandor, who was committed to a “Peronism without Perón”, is assassinated by five armed men in his office of the Metallurgical Workers’ Union (UOM), in Buenos Aires.

1971.- The three crew members of the Soviet spacecraft “Soyuz 11” die due to the depressurization of the capsule shortly before landing. They were pioneers in inhabiting the first orbital station, “Salyut 1”, for 23 days.

1980.- Vigdis Fihnbogadottir is elected president of Iceland. First woman who by vote accedes to the head of a European State.

– Pope John Paul II begins a trip of almost two weeks to Brazil in which he visits 13 cities.

1989.- A Military Junta headed by General Omar Hasán Ahmad al Bashir takes power in Sudan hours after carrying out a coup against the government of Sadek Al Mahdi.

1992.- The Russian government of Boris Yeltsin approves a broad program of deepening economic reforms, which includes the privatization of companies.

1995.- The Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany approves the sending of troops and combat planes to Bosnia, a decision with which half a century is broken without military intervention abroad.

1996.- The leader of the Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Leonel Fernández, wins the presidential elections in the second round by beating José Francisco Peña, of the Revolutionary Party (PRD), by 2.5 points.

2002.- Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada, of the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (MNR), prevails in the presidential elections in Bolivia over indigenous leader Evo Morales. Not getting any, 51% of the votes, Sánchez de Lozada was elected by Congress.

2004.- New restrictions of the US Government of George W. Bush come into force against Cuba, which limit the travel of Cuban exiles and the sending of remittances to their relatives.

2005.- The Spanish Congress approves the same-sex marriage law.

2008.- Microsoft stops selling Windows XP.

2010.- Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer declares bankruptcy and closes its studios after almost 90 years of success.

2019.- US President Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un meet on the dividing line that separates the two Koreas, which have been at war for almost 70 years.

2021.- The Spanish chef José Andrés and the NGO World Central Kitchen, Princess of Asturias Award for Concord.

.- American actor Bill Cosby is released from prison after his 2018 conviction for sexual assault was overturned.

.- The José Martí Library in Havana is declared a National Monument of Cuba.


1906.- Anthony Mann, American filmmaker.

1909.- Juan Bosch, former president of the Dominican Republic.

1911.- Milosz Czeslaw, Polish poet and 1980 Nobel Prize winner.

1917.- Susan Hayward, American actress.

1939.- José Emilio Pacheco, Mexican poet.


1966.- Mike Tyson, American heavyweight world champion boxer.

1975.- Ralf Schumacher, former German Formula 1 driver.

1985.- Michael Phelps, American swimmer.


1959.- José Vasconcelos, Mexican writer and politician.

1987.- Federico Mompou, Spanish composer.

2001.- Chet Atkins, American guitarist.

2009.- Pina Bausch, German dancer and choreographer.

2012.- Isaac Shamir, former Prime Minister of Israel.

2017.- Simone Veil, French politician. EFE

2021.- Donald Rumsfeld, former US Secretary of Defense.

.- Raúl de la Fuente, Mexican dubbing actor. EFE


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Ephemeris of June 30