Ephemeris of September 20

On September 20, but in 1990, the Parliaments of the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany ratified the Treaty of Political Unification of the two Germanies.


1519.- Five ships commanded by Ferdinand Magellan leave the port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz, southern Spain) in search of a new route for the spice market, an expedition that ended three years later Juan Sebastián Elcano as the first Around the World.

1822.- Inauguration of the Peruvian Constituent Congress born from an election called by the Liberator, General José San Martín.

1840.- The dictator of Paraguay, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, 74 years old, the main manager of the country’s independence, dies without designating a successor.

1867.- The Spanish frigate “Numancia” ends its trip around the world in Cádiz (southern Spain), after 2 years and 7 months of sailing. She becomes the first armored ship to circumnavigate the Earth.

1900.- Dissolution of the Papal States, which were under papal authority since 751, on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the occupation of Rome.


1946.- The first edition of the Cannes Film Festival (France) is inaugurated.

1961.- The “blue helmets” of the UN seize Elisabethville, the capital of the province of Katanga, thus ending its secession from the Congo and avoiding a civil war.

1970.- The Soviet probe “Luna 16” is the first unmanned spacecraft to successfully land on the Moon to collect rocks and bring them back to Earth.

1974.- Hurricane “Fifi”, with winds of up to 208 km/h, leaves 10,000 dead in Honduras.

– The Frelimo liberation movement forms a transitional government in Mozambique.

1979.- Overthrown by a coup the president of the Central African Republic, Bokassa I, who had proclaimed himself emperor.

1984.- Delivery of the “Sábato Report” to Argentine President Raúl Alfonsín, according to which 8,961 people disappeared in the political repression of the military dictatorship (1976-1983).

– A suicide attack against the US Embassy in Beirut, which is attributed to Islamic Jihad, causes 20 deaths.

1999.- An international UN force arrives in East Timor after the victory in the popular consultation of the option of independence against the continuing Indonesian occupation.

2003.- Latvia votes “yes” in the referendum for its entry into the EU, with 67% support.

2006.- The discovery in Ethiopia of the fossil of a girl from 3.3 million years ago is published.

2007.- The II Universal Forum of Cultures is inaugurated in Monterrey (Mexico).

2008.- A suicide attack with a truck-bomb against the Marriott Hotel in Islamabad causes 53 deaths and 266 injuries.

2009.- World leaders meet at the UN headquarters in New York to review compliance with the Millennium Development Goals.

2011.- The former president of Afghanistan Burhanudin Rabbani, the main mediator with the Taliban, and five other people are killed in a suicide attack with an explosive vest at his home in Kabul.

– The repeal of the law that prohibited declared homosexuals from belonging to the US Army comes into force.

2015.- The series “Game of Thrones” (Game of Thrones) breaks the Emmy record with 12 statuettes.


1903.- Marcial Lalanda, Spanish bullfighter.

1917.- Fernando Rey, Spanish actor.

1929.- Vittorio Taviani, Italian film director.

1934.- Sofia Loren, Italian actress.

1951.- Javier Marías Franco, writer, translator and academic of the RAE.

1959.- Maribel Atiénzar, Spanish bullfighter.


1908.- Pablo Sarasate, Spanish violinist and composer.

1957.- Jean Sibelius, Finnish composer.

1971.- George Seferis, Greek writer, diplomat and Nobel Prize for Literature 1963.

1979.- Ludvík Svoboda, former president of Czechoslovakia.

1981.- Josefina Carabias, Spanish writer and journalist.

1999.- Raisa Gorbachev, wife of Mikhail Gorbachev.

2005.- Simon Wiesenthal, Austrian, the best known “Nazi hunter” in history. EFE


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Ephemeris of September 20