(CNN) – The Nobel Prize is an international recognition awarded annually for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, economics, and peace.
Here are some facts you should know about the award:
October 7-14, 2019 – Awards announced. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed for his role in ending the 20-year war between Ethiopia and Eritrea.
October 1-8, 2018 – Nobel prizes announced. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict.
Nobel laureates: other information
The award winners are called laureates.
The Nobel Committee maintains the confidentiality of the names of the award nominees for 50 years before they are made public.
The award consists of a medal, a personal diploma and a cash award (SEK 9 million, approximately US $ 916,000 as of October 2019).
The main inscription on one side of the medals of the Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine and Literature is the same: “Inventas vitam juvat excoluisse per artes”, loosely translated as “And those who improved life on earth with a new superiority “. Word for word translation, “inventions enhance life that is beautified through art.”
The Peace medal has the inscription “Pro pace et fraternitate gentium”, translated as “For peace and the brotherhood of men”.
The Economy medal has no inscription.
Nobel Prizes are announced in advance, but are awarded annually on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death.
The Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature and Economics are awarded at a ceremony in Stockholm, Sweden.
The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded at his own ceremony in Oslo, Norway. Sometimes no prizes have been awarded. This happened most recently in 1972.
The number of winners is limited to three per category.
A person must be alive to be nominated. If they die during the consideration period, their name will be removed. Only if a person is announced as the winner and dies prior to the ceremony, will a posthumous award be awarded.
The Nobel Foundation protects the common interests of the award-winning institutions: the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet and the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
1866 – The Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel invents dynamite. Later, it builds companies and laboratories in more than 20 countries around the world.
December 10, 1896 – Nobel dies in Italy at the age of 63. His will awards awards in five categories: Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature, and Peace.
June 29, 1900 – The Nobel Foundation is established. It is the central body of the Nobel organization, responsible for awarding the Nobel Prizes.
1901 – The first Nobel Prizes are awarded.
1939-1943 – No Nobel Peace Prizes are awarded.
1968 – The Bank of Sweden (Sveriges Riksbank) adds a sixth award, Economics, in memory of Alfred Nobel.
2016: The group of 376 candidates for the Peace Prize is the largest in history.
May 4, 2018 – The Nobel Foundation announces the decision to postpone the 2018 Nobel Prize for Literature due to a sexual misconduct scandal within the Swedish Academy. The Foundation would award the award in 2019.
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Nobel laureates: some facts you should know about the award