Every April 20th remember the experiment that the French physicist Pierre Curie and his physicist and chemist wife of Polish origin and French nationality Marie Curie carried out in a laboratory in Paris that allowed them to discover the chemical elements of radium and polonium. The work of this marriage generated great contributions to the study of atoms in modern nuclear physics and it is worth recalling its history and immeasurable contribution to science.
Pierre Curie was born on May 15, 1859 in Paris. He studied science at the Sorbonne University and together with his brother Jacques de he began to carry out studies, among which the piezoelectric effect. Curie also discovered the loss of magnetism of certain substances in the event of a high temperature exposure.
Marie Curie, née Marja Sklodowska, was born on November 7, 1867, in Warsaw, Poland. She met Pierre at the Sorbonne in 1894, and they were married a year later. Marie devoted much of her career to studying radiationusing the techniques discovered by her husband specifically in uranium.
Marie Curie was the first to use the term “radioactive” to define elements that emit radiation when their nuclei decompose. Pierre joined Marie to continue her investigation.
They had two daughters, one of whom won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry with her husband for the discovery of new radioactive elements in 1935.
In 1898 the Curies presented a doctoral thesis at the Paris School of Physics and Chemistry, in which they announced the discovery of two new elements, polonium and radium. In this study they took the Marie studies together with the so-called Becquerel rays. Marie was the one who decided to name the first in this way in honor of her native country.
For this unprecedented work, they were awarded along with Becquerel the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize in history.
Pierre was appointed Professor of Physics at the University of Paris and member of the French Academy thanks to this award. However, Marie did not receive the same recognition, as these positions were not normally assigned to women.
April 19, 1906 Pierre died after being run over. Marie continued her studies and took charge of her classes at the University of Paris. In 1911 she received her second Nobel Prize, in this case for his work in chemistry. On this occasion, Marie had carried out relevant studies on radium and its compounds.
In this way, Marie Curie was the first person to receive two Nobel Prizes in different disciplines.. She likewise was the first female professor at the University of Paris. In 1914 she was appointed director of the Paris Radio Institute and founded the Curie Institute.
Another of his works contemplated the techniques of isolation of radioactive isotopes. In World War I he built the first radiological centers for military use.
Marie Curie died on July 4, 934 in Haute-Savoie due to anemia caused by the large exposures to radiation she had received throughout her life. She was buried with honors in the Pantheon in Paris, being the first woman in history to acquire this privilege.
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The discoveries of Pierre and Marie Curie, on a new anniversary of one of their most valuable experiments