Nobel Prize nominations are under development and four of the six categories usually awarded have already been announced. The medals will be officially awarded until December, as is the custom.
The recognition –one of the most famous internationally– is given to people, groups of people or institutions for their contributions to humanity; and their selection is made by specific entities for each of the branches.
So far, in this 2022, four designations have been published:
The Nobel Prize for Medicine was given to the Swedish Svante Pääno (67 years old), for finding Neanderthal genome sequence.
He demonstrated, from DNA analysis of human fossils found in Siberia in 2008, the existence of a hominin that transferred 2% of its genes to Homo sapiens: the Denisovans. From this, physiological implications were detected, such as, for example, the way in which the immune system reacts to infections, highlighted the AFP.
According to the jury, the biologist’s work opened the doors to a new scientific discipline: paleogenomics.
The Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Frenchman Alain Aspect (75 years old), American John Clauser (80 years old) and Austrian Anton Zeilinger (77 years old).
All three were recognized for their work and their contributions related to quantum communication; specifically, for showing that it is possible for particles to determine what happens to others up to a kilometer away.
The applications of this discovery can range from new quantum computing technologies to ultra-secure communications or ultra-sensitive sensors for highly precise measurements.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was given to Dane Morten Meldal (68 years old) and to Americans Barry Shaprless (81 years old) and Carolyn Bertozzi (55 years old).
They were recognized for the development of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry”: revolutionary concepts in the world of molecule production for industries as relevant as pharmaceuticals and the like, as well as for monitoring biological processes.
Sharpless received the award for the second time, joining a list of repeaters that included only four other people, including Marie Curie.
Finally, the Nobel Prize for Literature will go to the French Annie Ernaux (82 years old), who has published more than twenty books on topics related to the domination of social classes and love.
French President Emmanuel Macron congratulated the award and assured that the author “has been writing, for 50 years, the novel of the collective and intimate memory of our country.”
Which ones remain to be granted?
There are still two more awards to be issued.
The Nobel Peace Prize will be announced this October 7 at 4:00 am Costa Rican time; while the Nobel Prize in Economics will have its space next Monday.
How was the Nobel Prize born?
The Nobel Prize was founded by Alfred Nobel, a chemist and inventor who died in 1986 and allocated the vast majority of his inheritance to the foundation of the award. Among many other inventions and 355 patents, Nobel is responsible for dynamite.
The aim of the prize was to promote invention, research and cultural production. Almost all of the prizes have been awarded since 1901; however, the Economy department was created until 1968.
The economics, physics and chemistry prizes are selected by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; medicine, the Karolinska Institute; that of literature, the Swedish Academy; and that of peace, the Central Committee of the Nobel.
The awards include a payment of 10 million Swedish kronor: about $910,000 per person. In addition, the decoration in Stockholm, Sweden, for the first five branches; and in Oslo, Norway, for the Nobel Prize in Economics.
The Nobels, however, do not escape controversy. It is often criticized for its prevalence of awards to European men and people. In addition, this year it generates intrigue to which person or entity will be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, in the midst of upcoming geopolitical tensions in Eastern Europe, due to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
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These are the Nobel Prize winners of this 2022